Hyperthyroidism, also known as thyrotoxicosis, is a condition when your thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. It can cause unintended weight loss, and rapid or irregular heartbeat by accelerating your metabolism. 

To normalize thyroid functions, the healthcare providers may prescribe anti-thyroid medications, and radioactive iodine to lower the production of thyroid hormones. If drugs do not work well, your doctor may advise you to get the thyroid gland removed through surgery. 

Do not leave hyperthyroidism unrelated as it can lead to various complications if treatment is not given at the right time. If you have signs and symptoms of thyroid disease, you must visit an endocrinologist in Lahore 

What are the Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?

In hyperthyroidism, your thyroid gland produces too many thyroid hormones that include T3 and T4, eventually leading to a hypermetabolic state. In that state, signs, and symptoms appear such as;

  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Increased heart rate
  • Hand tremors
  • Increased sweating 
  • Low tolerance to heat

Hyperthyroidism may cause;

  • Frequent bowel movoements 
  • Irregular menstrual cycle in women 
  • Weight loss

The thyroid gland itself may swell, either symmetrically or asymmetrical, turning into a goiter. It may also cause your eyes to look more prominent- known as exophthalmos. Hyperthyroidism also cause other symptoms such as;

  • increased appetite
  • inability to concentrate
  • itching
  • hair loss
  • nausea and vomiting
  • nervousness
  • restlessness
  • breast development in men
  • weakness
  • irregular heartbeat
  • difficulty sleeping
  • fine, brittle hair

Symptoms of the overactive thyroid gland that require medical attention are;

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Dizziness 
  • Pounding fast heart rate
  • Shortness of breath 

Hyperthyroidism needs to be treated. If left untreated, it can lead to life-threatening conditions, such as atrial fibrillation that can also lead to stroke and congestive heart failure. 

What are the Causes for Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis can occur due to various conditions including thyroiditis, Grave’s disease, and Plummer’s disease. 

The thyroid gland regulates your metabolism enormously. It secretes two essential hormones known as triiodothyronine- T3 and thyroxine- T4. They affect almost every cell of your body and perform activities such as;

  • Maintenace of the rate at which your body uses fats and carbohydrates
  • Regulation of body temperature
  • Regulation of heart rate
  • Regulation of protein production 

What are the Risk Factors for Hyperthyroidism?

The risk factors for hyperthyroidism include;

  • Having a family history of the overactive thyroid gland. 
  • Being female 
  • Having other health conditions or their histories, such as adrenal insufficiency, type 1 diabetes, and pernicious anemia. 

What are the Complications of Hyperthyroidism?

The complications of hyperthyroidism are;

Heart problems

One of the most serious complications of hyperthyroidism is heart problems. It can cause arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, which in turn increases the risk of stroke and congestive heart failure. 

Brittle bones

Since thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, their oversecretion can affect bone health. Too many thyroid hormones affect the ability of your body to incorporate calcium into your bones. 

Eye problems 

Graves ophthalmology can cause eye conditions such as;

  • Sensitivity to light 
  • Red or swollen eyes
  • Bulging of eyes 
  • Blurring vision 
  • Doubling of vision 

Red skin 

Grave’s disease can lead to Grave’s dermopathy, causing redness and swelling of the skin. 

Thyrotoxic crisis 

A thyrotoxic crisis is a sudden exacerbation of symptoms. It can cause;

  • Rapid pulse
  • Fever
  • Delirium 

Conclusion 

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the middle of your neck. It secretes hormones that regulate metabolism. Too much and too little secretion of these hormones can affect your health adversely, causing a range of symptoms. If you have any of the above-mentioned signs and symptoms, you should visit an endocrinologist in Karachi 

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